Caremark RX是一家通过操作自己的子公司Caremark来运作的保健服务公司。公司的客户主要是健康计划的保证者 (雇主，保险公司，协会, 政府职员团体和健康组织) 以及分布在美国各地的居民。
Caremark Pharmacy Services, formerly known as Caremark Rx, was founded in 1993 in Birmingham, Alabama as MedPartners, Inc. by HealthSouth Corporation along with Richard Scrushy, former CEO of HealthSouth, and one time HealthSouth Chief Operating Officer Larry House as a physician practice management (PPM) company. After going public in 1995, MedPartners quickly became the largest PPM company through many acquisitions (see Ross-Loos Medical Group).
MedPartners originally acquired Caremark International which was founded as a unit of Baxter International and was spun off from Baxter in 1992 as a publicly traded company. On May 15, 1996, Caremark International announced it would be acquired by MedPartners with MedPartners ending up with Caremark's PPM division and prescription benefit management (PBM) division and disposing of Caremark's rehabilitation hospitals to HealthSouth. It expanded to the distribution of drugs for other conditions, including human growth hormone and multiple sclerosis.
In October 1997, PhyCor, the second largest PPM at the time, announced they would be acquiring MedPartners for $8 billion in stock and assumed debt. However the merger agreement was terminated in January 1998. The companies cited significant operational and strategic differences as the reason for the termination of the merger. MedPartners then announced that they would suffer a net loss of $841 million for the 4th quarter of 1997. Chairman, President and CEO Larry House resigned with Richard Scrushy taking over as interim Chairman, President and CEO. Scrushy announced that he would not change his role at HealthSouth as a result of him taking over at MedPartners. On March 18, 1998, Scrushy chose Edwin "Mac" Crawford to become the new President and CEO of MedPartners. Scrushy remaind as Chairman until November 1998, but remained on the board. After taking over, Mac Crawford announced that MedPartners was exiting its PPM business and refocusing on its PBM business. In 2000, after it had sold all of its PPM practices, MedPartners changed its name to Caremark Rx. In 2001 Scrushy sold his remaining shares in Caremark and left its board to continue as Chairman and CEO of HealthSouth.
In 2003, Caremark announced it was moving its corporate headquarters from Birmingham, Alabama to Nashville, Tennessee. Many believe the reason behind the relocation was so the company could hide its HealthSouth past. The announcement came only several months after the HealthSouth scandal broke and was viewed negatively by the Birmingham community after the city had stuck behind Caremark through its own scandal. The move was completed by middle of 2004.
In 2003 it merged with AdvancePCS seen as a key move in ensuring the growth and profitability of the company. By retaining key leaders (although no senior management) from the AdvancePCS organization, and adopting many of its key principles, Caremark Rx was able to bolster its position within the PBM industry.
Caremark currently has approximately 16,000 employees.
It is the second largest prescription management and pharmaceutical services business in the United States.
In March of 2007, Caremark merged with CVS Corporation to create CVS Caremark Corporation.
Today the company is one of the nation's leading pharmacy benefit management (PBM) companies, provides comprehensive prescription benefit management services to over 2,000 health plans, including corporations, managed care organizations, insurance companies, unions and government entities. With net revenue of approximately $37 billion (including approximately $5.8 billion of retail copayments) in 2006, they are also one of the largest PBMs. Caremark operates a national retail pharmacy network with over 60,000 participating pharmacies, as well as 11 mail service pharmacies. Caremark operates over 70 specialty pharmacies.
Ethical and legal issues at Caremark
Allegations and successful actions brought against Caremark include:
1. Caremark and its employees have been accused of racial harassment, particularly after its decision to outsource to India in 2003. It is currently facing a federal suit in a racial harassment of its former employee, Tirumalasetti +++On April 23, 2007, Caremark won their case against this former employee.
2. Caremark has been involved in a number of health fraud and Medicare fraud scandals, documented with sources at -.
3. The reported on June 17, 1995: "In the second-largest settlement ever for health-care fraud, Caremark International Inc. has agreed to pay $161 million in criminal and civil fines for paying kickbacks to doctors and submitting false billings to the government." -
4. Caremark has been accused of reusing returned mail-order medications back into customers orders.
5. Caremark has been accused of forging/falsifying prescription drug changes (brand to a generic drug, non-preferred brand to preferred brand) in its plan participants' mail order drug orders.
6. MSNBC report on CVS Caremark merger, indicating true reason for push to merge with CVS (essentially to protect current executives):
"The Caremark shareholder vote had been delayed twice because of a pension fund shareholder's lawsuit that claimed Caremark executives struck a bargain that favored company insiders over regular shareholders. Although the petition failed to stop the CVS deal, it revealed documents showing that Crawford negotiated jobs for himself, his son and other executives, won protection for the Caremark board from an ongoing investigation into backdating of stock options and guaranteed at least some Caremark directors would serve on the new company's board."
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